1. Introduction of BIM
What is the BIM? BIM is the acronym that stands for Building Information Modeling and is by definition the digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of a building, a dynamic model that encloses all the information that concerns its entire life cycle, from design to demolition and decommissioning.
The BIM in construction is a cornerstone of primary importance in the process of digitization and innovation of the sector because it allows to optimize and make functional the flow of information that concerns a work synthesizing all the data that concern it.
A real revolution in the approach of work that allows the different professionals involved in the project to collaborate in the creation of the virtual model of the work, contributing each, based on their skills and responsibilities, with information received.
The informative model allows to represent virtually a building before it is built physically, and to evaluate every aspect already in phase of planning. The various actors involved can access individually and simultaneously the information model and all the information it contains, entering their data, updating or modifying them if necessary.
Collaboration, accessibility and interoperability are an important part of the advantage of applying this operating methodology that allows to identify in advance any criticalities and errors, and to intervene promptly at the design stage. The effective management of the entire life cycle of a building is made possible by the support of technology that allows to create a shared digital environment, the so-called Common Data Environment.
The Common Data Environment or CDE is the operating tool of BIM management that allows you to collect and manage the information of a BIM project.
All the professionals involved can access this digital environment, insert their data nominally so that it is always clear to everyone who belongs to the informative contribution, update and modify them, consult all the information entered by the other professionals involved.
The definition of CDE and its operation were introduced for the first time by the English standards PAS 1192; subsequently they were also introduced in the Italian legislation in UNI 11337, in particular in UNI 11337-5 and UNI 11337-6 relating to the Chapter In formation, and the Common Data Environment is called Data Sharing Environment or ACDat.
2.The normative references of BIM in Italy
The BIM in the Italian legislation is regulated by Directive 24/2014 which constitutes the normative reference of the BIM in Europe and by the Code of Contracts and Contracts (D. Lgs. n.50 of 18 April 2016).
Directive 24/2014 already encouraged the use of BIM by contracting entities, administrations and economic operators, defined by a Commission established at the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport.
With the entry into force of the Code of Contracts and Public Procurement, the BIM methodology also becomes a benchmark for determining the requirements.
The mandatory nature of BIM , the methods and times of introduction , have been defined in the regulatory framework of the so-called Decree BIM (DM 560 of 1 December 2017).
The BIM Decree establishes the obligation to introduce operational modelling methodologies :
From 1st January 2019 for works of amount from 100 million euros;
From 2020 for works over 50 million euro;
From 2021 for works over EUR 15 million;
From 2022 for works over 5.3 million euro;
From 2023 for works of more than EUR 1 million;
From 2025 for all new works.
The Decree not only regulates the relationship between BIM and public procurement, but also introduces the obligation of contracting entities to provide for an adequate staff training plan, management and control of the data of interoperable open modelling platforms.
3. Advanteges of BIM
The advantages of BIM in the construction sector regarding all phases of a work, planning, design, construction and operational management.
If we go into the details of the activities related to the design and realization of a work we immediately realize the advantages of BIM design: have available a shared digital model in which every aspect of the realization is accessible allows you to immediately evaluate design errors and any criticality, saving on time and costs of intervention to change during construction.
The communication between stakeholders is clearer and more immediate than traditional methods and allows everyone to always know who did what, reducing the delays in alignment on the project.
Even the management of the BIM site opens to scenarios of greater functionality and efficiency.
Through the BIM it is also possible to create a virtual model of construction site that allows to represent the complexity, take into account at the same time all the resources that operate there, men and means, manage the presence and security, the modes and times, to verify at a later stage in a timely and precise way the progress of work planned during the design phase.
Smart Space has been dealing with BIM for years and makes available to all the companies in the construction sector that want to introduce the BIM methodology in their processes its skills and its experience. Advice always measured on the specific needs of each client.